Selasa, Disember 28, 2010

Ada apa kat dasar laut paling dalam?

"How deep is the deepest sea?"
Jonas from Amsterdam, Holland

The deepest known spot on the planet is called the Challenger Deep, found at the bottom of the Mariana Trench east of the Philippine Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Sounding of the depths in the Mariana Trench measure 11,033 meters (36,198 feet). This is approximately 2180 meters (7152 feet) deeper than the tallest mountain on the Earth抯 surface, Mount Everest (8,846 meters: 29,022 feet)! (Source: NOAA)

The deepest known fish in the oceans are brotulids Abyssobrotula found in trenches at over 8000 m and thus in the Hadal or Hadopelagic zone. The record appears to be an Abyssobrotula galatheae at 8372m in the Puerto Rico trench .

A viperfish, Chauliodus macouni

The owlfish, Bathylagus pacificus, photographed in Monterey Bay is named for its enormous eyes

Blackbelly dragonfish, Stomias atriventer
The lure tip is luminous and three pronged, perhaps to mimic the appendages of a small crustacean?

dollar hatchetfish (Sternoptyx sp.)

Giant grenadier
Albatrossia pectoralis (ob)
(500-1600m mainly)

slender snipe eels, Nemichthys scolopaceus

Blob sculpin (ob)
Psychrolutes phrictus
(550-1400m; possibly to 2800m)

A large gelatinous zooplankton (jellyfish) collected May-June 2003 during the Russian RV Smolensk cruise to the northern most MAR-ECO area

footballfish, family (Himantolophidae)

Ichthyococcus sp
Gonostomatids are the most abundant fish in the world not because they are particularly abundant in any one location but because they are found in all the worlds oceans in the mesopelagic realm

Snailfishes, Careproctus longifilis
filmed in Monterey Canyon just off the bottom at 3000 meters

Rattail or popeye grenadier
Coryphaenoides cinereus (ob)
(550-1800m mainly)

A fanfin anglerfish glowing lure attracts fishes and other deep sea animals.
Caulophryne sp
midwater (2,297-3,281 feet, or 700-3,000 m)

Deep sea anglerfish
Melanocetus johnsonii
midwater (2,297-3,281 feet, or 700-1,000 meters)

.Idiacanthus antrostomus
The males are small, about three inches (8 cm) in length, and brownish in color. They have no teeth, no chin barbel and no stomach. Unable to eat, the male lives only long enough to mate.

Pacific Hagfish
Eptatretus stoutii
seafloor, 30-2,600 feet (10-790 m)
-----Also known as slime eels, hagfish are primitive fishes. They have five hearts, no jaws, no true eyes and no stomach. They have poor vision but a very good sense of smell and touch.

Spotted Ratfish
Hydrolagus colliei
seafloor, to 3,300 feet (1,000 m); in Monterey Bay they are most common at 98-200 feet (30-61 m)
sirip dorsal yang besar macam sayap burung

The fish of the deep sea are among the most elusive and unusual looking creatures on Earth. Since many of these fish live in regions where there is no natural illumination, they cannot rely solely on their eyesight for locating prey and mates and avoiding predators; deep sea fish have evolved appropriately to the extreme sub-photic region in which they live. Many deep sea fish are bioluminescent, with extremely large eyes adapted to the dark, and they can have long feelers to help them locate prey or attract mates in the pitch dark of the deep ocean. The deep sea angler fish in particular has a long fishing-rod-like adaptation protruding from its face, on the end of which is a bioluminescent piece of skin that wriggles like a worm to lure its prey. The lifecycle of deep sea fish can be either permanently deeply submerged or they are sometimes born in shallower water and sink on becoming adults.

Due to the poor level of photosynthetic light reaching deep sea environments, most fish need to rely on organic matter sinking from higher levels, or, in rare cases, hydrothermal vents. This makes the deep sea much poorer in productivity than shallower regions, with most deep sea fish noticeably smaller and have larger mouths and guts than those known to us. It has also been found that the deeper a fish lives, the more jelly-like its flesh and the more minimal its bone structure. This makes them slower and less agile than surface fish.

-taken from wikipedia

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